NJSA 39:4-139.5 through NJSA 39:4-183.9

 
NJSA 39:4-139.5.
39:4-139.5.   Joint liability of owner and operator; recovery by owner against operator; leased vehicles
    a.   Except as provided in subsection b. of this section, the owner and operator shall be jointly liable for parking offenses, unless the owner can show that the vehicle was used without his consent, express or implied.  An owner who pays any fine, penalty, civil judgment, costs or administrative fees in connection with a parking offense shall have the right to recover that sum from the operator in a court of competent jurisdiction.

   b. (1) The owner of a motor vehicle who has leased the motor vehicle shall not be liable for a parking offense when the motor vehicle is under the control or in the possession of the lessee if, upon notice of a parking offense, the owner of a motor vehicle which was leased at the time of the offense notifies  the clerk of the court where the case is pending, by a notarized statement of  the name and address of the lessee.  The notarized statement shall be in a form prescribed by the Administrative Director of the Courts.

   (2)  After providing the name and address of the lessee, the owner shall not be required to attend a hearing on the offense, unless notified that the offense may have been caused by mechanical failure of the vehicle which resulted from the owner's failure to maintain the vehicle.

   (3)  Paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not apply to a parking offense which was caused by mechanical failure of the vehicle which resulted from the owner's failure to maintain the vehicle.

   The lessee of the motor vehicle who intends to claim the offense resulted from the owner's failure to maintain the vehicle shall notify the clerk of the court where the case is pending and the owner of the vehicle of this claim within five days after receiving notice of the offense or at least seven days prior to the date the case will be heard by the court, whichever is later.

   (4)  If the owner of the vehicle fails to comply with the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection, the court hearing the violation may take any action which the interests of justice require, including finding the owner of the motor vehicle liable for the parking offense.

   L. 1985, c. 14, s. 4.
 
NJSA 39:4-139.6.
39:4-139.6.   Failure to answer or appear; rule applicable; procedures; notice
    The municipal court shall immediately upon expiration of time to answer or appear, with respect to residents of New Jersey, follow the procedures set forth in R. 7:6-3(a) of the Rules Governing the Courts of the State of New Jersey.  These procedures include the mailing of a notice of offense or a failure to appear notice to defendant.  That notice shall be on a form approved by the Administrative Director of the Courts and shall inform the defendant of the parking offense charged; the time and date of the parking offense; the amount of fines, penalties and costs due; of his right to have a hearing;  that a civil judgment may be entered against him for failure to appear or pay the amount due; and that his driver's license may be suspended; that his driving privileges may be revoked; and that a warrant may be issued for his arrest.

   The procedures set forth in R. 7:6-3(c) of the Rules Governing the Courts of the State of New Jersey shall be followed in the case of a nonresident.

   L. 1985, c. 14, s. 5.
 
NJSA 39:4-139.7.
39:4-139.7.   Answer to parking ticket or failure to appear notice
    a.   In answer to a parking ticket or failure to appear notice, a person to  whom a parking ticket or failure to appear notice was issued may:

   (1)  Admit the commission of the parking offense by payment of the fine and  penalty due; or

   (2)  Deny liability and appear in court in accordance with the instructions  on the summons or otherwise as provided by court rule.

   b.   A person to whom a parking ticket or failure to appear notice has been  issued may answer by personal appearance or by mail in accordance with instructions on the summons.

   c.   A person who admits the commission of a parking offense shall, at the same time he submits his answer, pay the civil fine and any additional penalties established pursuant to local ordinance or regulation, which may be due for failure to answer within the time required.

   L. 1985, c. 14, s. 6.
 
NJSA 39:4-139.8.
39:4-139.8.   Evidence; submission to court; presence of officer; default judgment after failure to answer or pay fine and penalties; effect; assessment of costs; appeals; limitation of actions
    a.   The officer issuing the ticket shall not be required to appear at the hearing of a case unless the respondent has denied that the parking offense occurred by his commission and the court determines that the officer's presence is required.  The court may grant a reasonable adjournment if the officer is not available at the time of hearing.  It shall not be required that evidence  other than the parking ticket and information from the division identifying the owner of the vehicle be submitted to the court, and that documentation in proper form shall be considered prima facie evidence that the registered owner of the vehicle was the person who committed the parking offense.

   b.   If a person to whom a failure to appear notice has been issued fails to answer or fails to appear at a hearing when he is required to do so, or, having admitted commission of the parking offense, fails to pay the fine and penalties assessed by the court, the court may, in addition to all other remedies and penalties currently available to the court for failure to appear, enter a judgment by default sustaining the charges, fix the appropriate fine and assess appropriate penalties and costs, if any.

   c.   A judgment by default may be vacated by the court within one year after its entry only upon written application setting forth both a sufficient defense to the charge and an excusable neglect as to the respondent's failure to attend the hearing.  If a failure to appear notice was mailed to the registered owner at the address appearing on the records of the division, the failure to receive the notice shall not be considered a defense unless the owner can prove that the division was advised of the owner's correct address prior to the date of the parking offense.

   d.   If payment is not made within 10 days after entry of a default judgment for a parking offense, the order of the court may be filed in the office of the clerk of the Superior Court and, when filed, shall have the effect of a civil  money judgment.  Judgments for parking offenses shall be maintained in a separate judgment roll from other civil judgments. Execution may be levied and other measures may be taken for the collection of the judgment which are authorized for the collection of an unpaid civil judgment. The court may assess costs against a judgment debtor, not to exceed $25.00 for each violation, to be paid upon satisfaction of the judgment.

   e.   If a notice of appeal is filed by the person against whom judgment is entered within 10 days after entry of the judgment and the payment of costs which the court shall require, a hearing de novo shall be held in accordance with the rules of the court.  Service of a notice of appeal shall not stay the enforcement of a judgment appealed from unless the appellant shall have posted a bond in the amount of the judgment plus court costs at or before service of the notice of appeal.

   f.   A default judgment under this act may be filed by the court at any time within three years after the parking ticket was issued.

   L. 1985, c. 14, s. 7.
 
NJSA 39:4-139.9
39:4-139.9.  Operating costs; civil contempt
     a.   Out of each parking penalty assessed and disbursed to the municipality where a failure to appear notice was issued under these provisions, $2.00 shall be designated and distributed to the municipal court by the municipality to provide for the operating costs to administer this act. These funds shall be in addition to the municipal court's normal budget allocation but in no event shall exceed those additional costs to the court incurred as a result of this act.

    b.   If a respondent defaults in the payment of a fine, penalty or costs, or of an installment, the court may require the respondent to show cause why the default should not be treated as a civil contempt and may issue a summons or order to show cause or a bench warrant of arrest for the respondent's appearance.  The officers of a corporation or the partners, directors or officers of an association may be held in contempt upon a default by the corporation or association.

    L.1985,c.14,s.8; amended 1989,c.137.
 
NJSA 39:4-139.10
39:4-139.10   Failure to respond, pay parking judgment, penalties.
 9. a. If a person has failed to respond to a failure to appear notice or has failed to pay a parking judgment, the municipal court may give notice of that fact to the division in a manner prescribed by the director.  If notice has been given under this section of a person's failure to respond to a failure to appear notice or to pay a parking judgment and if the fines and penalties are paid or if the case is dismissed or otherwise disposed of, the municipal court shall promptly give notice to that effect to the division.

 b. The judge or the division may suspend the driver's license of an owner, lessee, or operator who has not answered or appeared in response to a failure to appear notice or has not paid or otherwise satisfied outstanding parking fines or penalties. If an owner, lessee or operator has been found guilty of a parking offense, the court shall provide notice and an opportunity to appear before a judge prior to suspending that person's driver's license.  If the owner, lessee or operator is found by the court to be indigent or is participating in a government-based income maintenance program, that person shall be permitted to pay the parking fine and other penalties in installments in accordance with section 1 of P.L.1981, c.365 (C.39:4-203.1).

 c. The division shall keep a record of a suspension ordered by the court pursuant to subsection b. of this section.

 L.1985,c.14,s.9; amended 1999, c.397, s.1.
 
NJSA 39:4-139.10a
39:4-139.10a   Time limit on enforcement of parking violations.

 1. In any parking case, if the municipal court fails, within three years of the date of the violation, to either issue a warrant for the defendant's arrest, or to order a suspension of the defendant's driving privileges or the defendant's non-resident reciprocity privileges or prohibit the person from receiving or obtaining driving privileges, the matter shall be dismissed and shall not be reopened.

 L.1999,c.423,s.1.
 
NJSA 39:4-139.11
39:4-139.11. Restoration of driver's license after satisfaction of fines and penalties; recordation
    a.   When a person whose license has been suspended pursuant to subsection b. of section 9 of this act satisfies the fines and any penalties imposed by the  court, the court shall forward to the division a notice to restore the person's driver's license.

   b.   Upon receiving a notice to restore pursuant to subsection a. of this section, the division shall record the restoration and notify the person of the restoration.

   L. 1985, c. 14, s. 10.
NJSA 39:4-139.12
39:4-139.12. Suspension of license; fee; deposit
    There shall be included in the fines and penalties imposed by the court on a person whose license has been suspended pursuant to subsection b. of section 9 of this act a fee of $3.00 which shall be transferred by the court to the division.  All fees so transferred shall be deposited in a fund established to effectuate the purposes of this act.

   L. 1985, c. 14, s. 11.
 
NJSA 39:4-139.13
39:4-139.13. Impoundment or immobilization of vehicle with outstanding warrants; authorization by municipalities by ordinance; sale at auction; reclamation of possession prior to sale; disposition of proceeds
    a.   The governing body of every municipality may make, amend, repeal and enforce an ordinance authorizing the impoundment or immobilization of a vehicle found within the jurisdiction of that municipality if there are any outstanding warrants against the vehicle.

   b.   Except for vehicles owned by lessors who have complied with paragraphs  (1) and (2) of subsection b. of section 4 of this act, if the outstanding warrants are not paid by midnight on the 30th day following the day on which the vehicle was impounded or immobilized, the vehicle may be sold at a public  auction.  The municipality shall give notice of the sale by certified mail to  the owner, if his name and address are known, and to the holder of any security interest filed with the director, and by publication in a form to be prescribed by the director by one insertion, at least five days before the date of the sale, in one or more newspapers published in this State and circulating in the municipality in which the motor vehicle has been impounded or immobilized.

   c.   At any time prior to the sale, the owner of the motor vehicle or other  person entitled to the motor vehicle may reclaim possession of the motor vehicle upon payment of the reasonable costs of removal and storage of the motor vehicle, any fine or penalty and court costs assessed against him for a  violation that gave rise to the impoundment or immobilization of the motor vehicle, and any outstanding warrants against the vehicle; however, the owner-lessor of a motor vehicle who has complied with paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection b. of section 4 of this act shall be entitled to reclaim possession without payment and the lessee shall be liable for any fine, penalty, court costs and outstanding warrants against the vehicle.

   d.   Any proceeds obtained from the sale of a vehicle at public auction pursuant to subsection b. of this section in excess of the amount owed to the municipality for the reasonable costs of removal and storage of the motor vehicle, any fine or penalty and court costs assessed against him for a violation that gave rise to the impoundment or immobilization of the motor vehicle, and any outstanding warrants against the vehicle, shall be returned to the owner of the vehicle, if his name and address are known.

   L. 1985, c. 14, s. 12.
 
NJSA 39:4-139.14
39:4-139.14. Contracts by municipalities with public agency or private organization for services to process parking offenses; plan by municipality; approval by Supreme Court
    A municipality may enter into a contract with a public agency or private organization for services to be rendered in the processing of parking offenses under this act.  A municipality which contracts for processing services shall submit a plan to the Supreme Court describing the services to be provided and the procedures to be used.  The Supreme Court shall approve a plan submitted by a municipality prior to the implementation of that plan.

   L. 1985, c. 14, s. 13.
NJSA 39:4-140
39:4-140.  Designation of through highways, stop intersections and yield intersections;  erection of stop or yield signs
    The Commissioner of Transportation, with reference to State highways, may by  regulation and the local authorities, with reference to any highway under their  jurisdiction, may by ordinance or resolution, subject to the approval of the  commissioner, except as otherwise provided in R.S. 39:4-8, designate through  highways and erect  "stop"  signs or  "yield"  signs at specified entrances  thereto, or may designate any intersection as a stop intersection or as a yield  intersection and may erect  "stop" signs or "yield"  signs at one or more  entrances to such intersections.

    The commissioner on his own motion may designate through streets, stop intersections and yield intersections, and upon the designation shall give notice thereof to the board or body charged with the maintenance of such streets or intersections.  The board or body shall thereupon comply with section 39:4-141 of this Title.  The commissioner may by appropriate order withdraw the designation of through streets, stop intersections or yield intersections and thereafter cause the removal of  "stop"  signs or "yield" signs indicating such streets or intersections.

     Amended by L.1951, c. 23, p. 101, s. 79;  L.1956, c. 107, p. 486, s. 3; L.1958, c. 114, p. 587, s. 2;  L.1971, c. 428, s. 1, eff. Feb. 1, 1972; L.1983, c. 227, s. 3, eff. June 27, 1983.
 
NJSA 39:4-141.
39:4-141.   Placing of signs
    The official, board or body charged with the maintenance of a highway or section thereof designated as a through street, or of an intersection designated as a stop intersection or a yield intersection, as provided in section 39:4-140 of this Title shall place  "stop"  signs or  "yield right of way"  signs, as in the designation provided, on the near right side of each highway intersecting the through street or of each entrance to the intersection  where such sign is deemed necessary;  except that on one-way streets, such  signs may be placed on either or both near sides of the intersecting street or  entrance, if approved by the director.

     Amended by L.1951, c. 23, p. 102, s. 80;  L.1956, c. 107, p. 486, s. 4; L.1958, c. 114, p. 588, s. 3.
 
NJSA 39:4-143
39:4-143.  Intersecting through streets
    When through streets intersect each other the director shall determine the highway to be known as the through street and cause the board or body having control of the highways to post only one of the highways.

     Amended by L.1951, c. 23, p. 102, s. 81.
NJSA 39:4-144.
39:4-144.   Stopping or yielding right of way before entering stop or yield intersections
    No driver of a vehicle or street car shall enter upon or cross an intersecting street marked with a  "stop"  sign unless he has first brought his  vehicle or street car to a complete stop at a point within 5 feet of the nearest crosswalk or stop line marked upon the pavement at the near side of the  intersecting street and shall proceed only after yielding the right of way to  all traffic on the intersecting street which is so close as to constitute an  immediate hazard.  No driver of a vehicle or street car shall enter upon or  cross an intersecting street marked with a  "yield right of way"  sign without  first slowing to a reasonable speed for existing conditions and visibility,  stopping if necessary, and the driver shall yield the right of way to all  traffic on the intersecting street which is so close as to constitute an  immediate hazard;  unless, in either case, he is otherwise directed to proceed  by a traffic or police officer or traffic control signal, or as provided in  section 39:4-145 of this Title.

     Amended by L.1956, c. 107, p. 486, s. 5;  L.1958, c. 114, p. 588, s. 4.
 
NJSA 39:4-145
39:4-145.  Line of vehicles entering stop or yield intersection after stopping
    One or more vehicles or street cars following directly in line with another  vehicle or street car and coming to a complete stop, caused by the first  vehicle or street car nearest the intersection complying with section 39:4-144  of this Title, may proceed into or across the intersecting street without again  coming to a complete stop.  No driver of a vehicle or street car approaching  the intersection on the intersecting street shall fail to yield to the vehicle  so proceeding into or across the intersecting street.

     Amended by L.1958, c. 114, p. 589, s. 5.
 
NJSA 39:4-183.1
39:4-183.1.  Legal authority
    Traffic signs shall be placed only by the authority of a public body or official having jurisdiction as authorized by law and only for the purpose of regulating, warning or guiding traffic.

    This section, however, shall not prohibit public utility companies or other  authorized persons or companies from erecting temporary MEN WORKING signs to  protect construction, maintenance or repair work on or within a public highway;   provided, such signs conform reasonably to the specifications included in this  act.

     L.1941, c. 345, p. 903, s. 2.
NJSA 39:4-183.1a
39:4-183.1a  Installation of traffic control device, sign by municipality at request of school.

 1. Notwithstanding any law to the contrary, a municipality may, upon the request of the appropriate board of education or, in the case of a private school, by the school's governing body, provide by resolution for the installation of a traffic control device or sign consistent with the current standards prescribed by the Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways as adopted by the Commissioner of Transportation, to regulate motor vehicle traffic at an intersection located within 300 feet of any public or private school; provided that the municipal or county engineer shall, under the engineer's seal as a licensed professional engineer, certify to the municipal or county governing body, as appropriate, that the traffic control or device has been approved by the engineer after the engineer's investigation of the circumstances.  Before a resolution shall take effect, however, the governing body shall submit a copy of the resolution to the Commissioner of Transportation for his review and approval together with detailed information as to the location of streets, intersections and signs affected by any installation, traffic count, accident and speed sampling data when appropriate, the municipal or county engineer's certification, under the engineer's seal as a licensed professional engineer, to the municipal or county governing body, and any other information as the commissioner may require.  If the commissioner disapproves the resolution, he shall file his disapproval, in writing, with a statement of the reasons for his disapproval, with the governing body within 90 days following the receipt of the resolution.  If the commissioner approves the  resolution or fails to file his disapproval within the 90-day review period, the resolution shall take effect immediately.

 For the purposes of this section, the term "public or private school" has the meaning that term is given in N.J.S.18A:1-1.

 L.1984,c.219,s.1; amended 2001, c.342, s.3.
 
NJSA 39:4-183.1b.
39:4-183.1b.  Designation of "Older and Walking Impaired Persons Crossing" areas 
     The Commissioner of Transportation, with reference to State highways, may by regulation and the local authorities, with reference to any highway under their jurisdiction, may by ordinance or resolution, subject to the approval of the commissioner, designate "Older and Walking Impaired Persons Crossing" areas and erect appropriate signs. 

    L.1991,c.120,s.1. 
 
NJSA 39:4-183.2
39:4-183.2.  Signs hereafter erected
    All traffic signs hereafter erected, whether initial installations or replacements, must conform in all respects to the provisions of this act.

     L.1941, c. 345, p. 903, s. 3.
NJSA 39:4-183.3.
39:4-183.3.   Display of unauthorized traffic signs
    No person shall place, maintain or display upon or in view of any highway, any unauthorized traffic sign, device or other contrivance which purports to be  or is an imitation of or of such a nature as to be mistaken for an official  traffic sign or which attempts to direct the movement of traffic or which hides  from view or interferes with the effectiveness of any official traffic sign and  no person shall place or maintain, nor shall any public authority permit upon  any highway, any traffic sign or signal bearing thereon or its support, any  commercial advertising.

    This shall not be deemed to prohibit the erection upon private property adjacent to highways of signs giving useful directional information and of a type that cannot be mistaken for official signs.

     L.1941, c. 345, p. 903, s. 4.
 
NJSA 39:4-183.4.
39:4-183.4.   Prohibited signs deemed a nuisance;  action for removal
    A sign, device or other contrivance prohibited by section four of this act shall be deemed a public and private nuisance and any citizen may maintain an action at law or in equity for its removal.  The sole question of law and fact shall be whether it is in imitation of or of a nature as to be mistaken for an official traffic sign.

     L.1941, c. 345, p. 904, s. 5.
 
NJSA 39:4-183.6
39:4-183.6   Determination of signage.

 7. The commissioner may determine the character, type, location, wording or symbol, and use of all traffic signs on the highways of this State; may adopt a manual and specifications for a uniform system of traffic signs consistent with the provisions of this act for use upon public highways within the State.  Such uniform system shall correlate with and so far as possible conform to the system then current as specified in the "Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways."

 L.1941,c.345,s.7; amended 1951, c.23, s.82; 2003,c. 13, s.53.
NJSA 39:4-183.8.
39:4-183.8.   Materials
    Permanent traffic signs should be made of metal or comparable durable material;  wood may be used for large signs and also for temporary and seasonal  signs;  heavy cardboard may be used for special occasions or emergencies.

     L.1941, c. 345, p. 906, s. 9.  Amended by L.1951, c. 23, p. 104, s. 84.
 
NJSA 39:4-183.9
39:4-183.9   Design of traffic signs.

 10. The design of all traffic signs shall conform to and have the minimum dimensions of the specifications adopted by the commissioner, except as otherwise approved by the commissioner.  Where conditions require greater visibility necessitating a larger sign, standard shapes and colors shall be used, and standard proportions shall be retained, so far as practicable.

 This is not to be deemed to prohibit the erection of enlarged bridge type signs or narrow longitudinal type signs suspended from mast arms, over the roadway.

 L.1941,c.345,s.10; amended 1951, c.23, s.85; 1956, c.107, s.7; 2003, c.13, s.54.